The hierarchical effect | The five needs | Three more needs | So what? In 1943 Abraham Maslow, one of the founding fathers of humanist approaches to management, published an influential paper that lay out five fundamental human needs and their hierarchical nature. These are quoted and taught so widely given that many people understand this model as the definitive group of needs and don’t look further.
A key facet of the model is the hierarchical nature of the needs. The lower the needs in the hierarchy, the greater fundamental they may be and the more a person will tend to abandon the higher needs to be able to focus on sufficiently meeting the low needs. For instance, whenever we are ill, we care and attention little for what others think about us: all we wish is to progress.
Maslow called the first four needs ‘D-need’ because they are triggered whenever we have a deficit. Only self-actualization is a need that people look for positive reasons exclusively. Maslow also called them ‘instinctoid’ because they are genetically programmed into us as essential for evolutionary survival. Lack of these during childhood can lead to trauma and lifelong fixation.
- I listened to the brag of my heart I am I am I am
- 2: “So you didn’t wake me up?”
- Moisturize Frequently
- January 3
- Gaston eliminating the Beast with a weapon
Click on the needs in the diagram below for greater detail, or read below for an instant summary of each. Note that in practice this hierarchy is only approximate and there is no need to have your physiologically needs fully satisfied prior to going on to seeking higher needs. In their global study, for example, Tay and Diener (2011) found that people can be living in hazardous poverty and yet still derive much satisfaction from having social needs (belonging and esteem) satisfied.
Physiological needs are regarding the maintenance of our body. If we are unwell, little else issues until we recover then. Safety needs are about putting a roof over our heads and keeping us from harm. If we are wealthy, powerful and strong, or have friends, we can make ourselves safe. Belonging needs expose our tribal nature. If we are helpful and kind to others they shall want us as friends.
Esteem needs are for a higher position within an organization. If people respect us, we’ve better power. Self-actualization needs are to ‘become what we are capable of becoming’, which would our best achievement. These are the needs that are most discussed and used commonly. In fact Maslow later added three more needs by splitting two of the above five needs. Between esteem and self-actualization needs were added: – Need to know and understand, which explains the cognitive need of the academic. The need for visual beauty, which is the emotional need of the designer.